American History 美国十九世纪历史

The USA was founded early in the 17th century by settlers from Europe in the east of the country. The earlier settlements were in the south east. The  focus was agriculture, including cotton and tobacco. These crops were very successful, partly because of the use of slaves brought from Africa.

美国早十七世纪在国家东方被欧洲定居者建国了。那些最早的聚落在东南成立了。首先他们集农业,包括棉和烟草。这些作物很成功, 大部分的原因是定居者使用了从非洲运输的奴隶。

北方的聚落先在博此饨 (Boston) 和纽约成立了。扩展向西方以后发生了。到十九世纪的时候,北方的工业发展得很快,北方的人口比南方增加很快。到一八六零年代的时候,新的定居者向西扩大了领土,到达那个很长很宽从北向南流的密西西比河。密西西比河大约于半分国家。

In 1861 President Lincoln became president of the USA. He determined that new states which were being established in the western half of the country would not be allowed to have slaves. The slave owning states in the south strongly objected to this restriction. Consequently eleven states seceded from the United States. Subsequently, Southern (Confederate) troops attacked military installations. This led to the Civil War between the northern and southern states. President Lincoln’s intention in the war was to prevent the secession of the southern states, which would have led to the break up of the country into two halves.

一八六一年林肯先生为美国的总统。他决定在西方成立的新省不以后允许拥有奴隶。在南方拥有奴隶的省对于这个限制很不满意。所以十一省从美国推出了。而且南方也叫同谋的部队攻击了些兵堡。这个事件造成了北省和南省之间的战争。总统林肯向站争的意图是阻止南省推出的情况。他想如果南省离开国家的话, 可能美国近二个半分隔了。

The troops on both sides who fought the war were initially militia with limited military training. However, both sides rapidly conscripted additional troops. By the end of the war, the north had recruited around 2m troops, southern recruitment was around 1.1m. The main weapon used by the infantry was the musket, a primitive, slow firing weapon loaded from the muzzle. In spite of this, there was a high casualty level on both sides. It is estimated that some 620,000 soldiers lost their lives during the war. Many of these casualties arose from the deployment of unprotected troops against opposing forces protected by entrenched positions and ditches. The high casualty rates foreshadowed the slaughter suffered by  armies in the wars of the twentieth century.

首先每军配置民兵,没有充分军训。但是每军很快征召了别的兵。战争终于结束了,北军招过大约二百万的兵,但是南军只招过一百万。兵队主要利用的武器是那个滑膛枪,这是一个古朴慢射近枪口装填的武器。但是每军死伤者的数很高。总大约六十二万兵在战争里死了。很多死伤者由于反在壁垒后头和沟里的敌人配置不保护的兵队发生了。这些高死伤者的数前兆了那个二十世纪战争里步兵的残害。

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At the beginning of the war, the southern states were in a far weaker position than the north. The northern industrial base was far more prosperous than the agricultural economic base in the south. The southern armies deployed against the north were typically outnumbered two to one. Moreover, the northern navy implemented a naval blockade which effectively curtailed southern export business and helped to cripple the economy.

战争开始的时候,南方省的情况比北方弱多了。北方工业基础比南方的农业经济繁荣极了。 北方军兵的数比南省军高一倍。而且北海军执行了一个海上封锁。这个作用很有效,紧缩了 南方的出口,也帮助削弱南的经济。

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The continuation of the war for four years was attributed to one main factor, which was the quality of the military leadership of the two armies. General Robert Lee, the southern  leader, is generally regarded as one of the great soldiers of history. He made rapid decisions and attacked his enemies decisively. He gave his subordinates considerable delegated control, and treated them with respect. By contrast, in the early years of the war, no northern general achieved decisive victories. One after the other was replaced after suffering calamitous defeats. Finally, after his victory in the siege of Vicksburg on the Mississippi river, General Grant was given command of the northern forces. General Grant proved to have the leadership qualities and strategic understanding required to bring his stronger forces to victory over the south.

 

战争继续四岁的情况由一个因素出现,原因是每军之间的领导性质很不同。上将扰把特李 (Robert Lee), 为南省的领导,他平常算了历史最重要的兵之一。他办军事果断,也打击敌人的时候态度坚决。他给下属充分转授控制,也亲切得对待同志,很尊重他们。反而早时期的战争时,没有北方的上将获得什么决战。领导军成效失败以后,些上将快代替了。但是跟着他的密西西比河上的比则博各 (Vicksburg) 围城的胜利,上将各然特 (Grant) 终于接受了北军的控制。上将各然特的领导和战略性能力使他北比南更大的军收到胜利。

For the first two years of the war, the northern armies attempted to conduct a series of assaults against Richmond, the capital city of the south. Richmond is only about 150 km from Washington, the capital city of the USA. This resulted in several major battles, including two battles at Bull Run, and also Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Each of these was a defeat for the north, and after all of these battles, the commanding general was replaced.

先两岁的战争时,北方的军发起了些反叫日车梦得 (Richmond) 南首都的进攻。日车梦得距美国首都的哇性饨 (Washington) 只约有一百五十公里。结果是两军进行了些重要的战斗,它们 包括在博乐润的两战斗,也进行了发日得日颗自博颗 (Fredericksburg) 和 全色落自比乐 (Chancellorsville). 结果所有的战斗都是北方的军失败乐。每重要的战斗以后,上将代替了。

As a result of these victories, General Lee was encouraged to conduct an offensive war against the north. He marched his troops into territory north of Washington, and reached the town of Gettysburg some 130 km north of the capital city. Lee intended his troops to occupy high ground near the town, but dilatory action by a subordinate general allowed the troops of the northern General Meade to secure this position. The main activity of the battle comprised a series of assaults by Lee’s troops on the northern entrenched troops at the top of the hill. These included a famous infantry assault by General Pickett known as Pickett’s charge. The southern attacks were all repulsed, and led to the retreat of Lee’s army to their territory in the south. Lee’s unsuccessful strategy at Gettysburg may have resulted from overconfidence after his earlier victories.

这些胜利策励上将李反北方的领土进攻。他近北边的叫哇性饨 (Washington) 首都 的领土领导了他的军,快到达了从首都向北约一百三十公里叫各提自博各 (Gettysburg)的城乡。李打算了他的兵力应该占城乡附近的一个高地方,但是一位下属耽误了,由于允许了北方上将密得 (Meade) 的军占这个区位。战斗开始以后,李的兵力很多次攻击了在山顶上的那个坐守军。进攻包括了一个由上将批颗特(Pickett)的有名兵力进攻,总叫批颗特的进攻。所有南方军的冲锋都被打退了。由于李的军向南方后退了。可能李的战略不收到了成效是因为他跟着他的胜利感觉盲目乐观。

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In early 1864 General Grant led a northern army south in a further attempt to conclude the war. The far higher standard of leadership provided led to victories for the north at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania. An attack on southern troops dug into woods at Cold Harbour proved to be a tragic mistake, and General Grant withdrew his troops after heavy losses. Finally, General Lee’s army fled south in front of the much larger northern army, and was effectively imprisoned in the town of Petersburg during a nine month siege. Lee’s army at last broke out, but was finally surrounded at Appomattox, and surrendered, thus ending the four year war.

早一八六四年上将各然特向南领导了他的军, 他希望了结束战争。他的领导素质比那些前上将好极了,结果是在比乐得那色 (Wilderness) 和 色破特自以乐班以阿 (Spotsylvania) 的胜利。一个反在口乐得哈博 (Cold Harbor) 近树林坐守的那个南方的军效果了悲惨错误,而上将各然特上将李的军终于更大的北方军前向南出亡了,然后被近叫批特自博各(Petersburg) 的城乡囚禁了。北方的军围攻了城乡九月。李的军才离开了城乡, 但是终于在阿破吗头西被包围,投降以后,从而结束了四岁的战争。

The result of the War was the retention of the United States in its existing form, and the surrender by the southern states of their slaves.

战争的结果是美国存形保留的,也南方的省释放了他们的奴隶。

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