The Middle East中东

The area known in the West as the Middle East lies between the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to the west and Iran in the East. It covers a distance west to east of approximately 1300 kilometres. Today the Middle East is one of the richest regions in the world, based on the possession of vast reserves of oil. It is also an area of conflict, with armed disputes between Shia and Sunni religious sects, as well as conflict between Muslim forces and western Christian nations. How was the Middle East created, and how has the present situation arisen?

西方叫中东的区域在西头东地中海和在东头伊朗之间。东头从西头的距离是一千三百公里左右。现在中东是世界上最富的区域之一,是因为拥有丰富油的储量。但是中东也是冲突的地方,有什叶和逊尼宗教教派之间的武装冲突,也有穆斯林兵力和西方基督徒的国家之间的战争。中东是怎么创造,再说目前的情况怎么发生了?

To find out we need to return to the foundation of the Roman Empire in Italy around 2,700 years ago. As it expanded over the next 1,000 years, Rome grew to cover vast areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The distance to the eastern periphery from Rome became so great that it became necessary to establish an eastern administrative centre at Constantinople on the Bosphorus. This was a narrow channel linking the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. After Rome finally collapsed in 471AD, the eastern Empire became known as Byzantium, and continued to prosper. Constantinople was eventually overcome in 1453 by armies of the Ottoman Empire, based in Turkey.

为了了解这个问题,我们需要阅二千七百年以前的意大利里罗马帝国的基础。罗马发展千年年代的时候,罗马帝国围地中海的巨大区域遍布过。从罗马到东头的距离很长,所以需要成立一个在博斯普鲁斯上的君士坦丁堡东方的施政中心。博斯普鲁斯是一个很窄连地中海根黑海的海峡。罗马终于471年瓦解以后,东方的帝国开始叫拜占庭,也继续兴荣。但是君士坦丁堡从来没有一个很强的军,所以它1453年被从火鸡的奥斯曼帝国军失败了。

The Ottomans themselves created a large empire, which extended from Austria in the West to Iran in the East. Thus the Ottoman territory included the land we now know as the Middle East. After about 1680, this empire started to decline, and by the beginning of the Great War (in Europe) in 1914 was near to collapse. The Ottoman Empire, or Turkey as it was now called, allied with Germany in the Great War, and was thus on the losing side. As a consequence, its Middle Eastern territories were dismembered, resulting in the creation of a number of new countries.

奥斯曼也成立一个从西头的奥地利到东头的伊朗很大的帝国。从而奥斯曼土地包括现在叫中东的区域。大概1680年以后,这个帝国开始衰落, 到1914年开始从1914到1918世界战争的时候,这个帝国的终结很近了。奥斯曼帝国,那时候叫火鸡,1914-1918战争里跟德国联了,从而失败了。由于它中东的土地肢解了,所以被成立些新的国家。

Unfortunately, a number of these countries have suffered nearly a century of intermittent conflict and dispute. Syria, which has no oil, has recently been engaged in military conflict for several years. Iraq has large oil reserves, but its population is a mixture of Shia and Sunni Muslim sects, which has led to conflict. In addition, in 2003 President George Bush in the USA led an attack on the country resulting in a war and subsequent unrest. Israel was created as a new country in 1948 and has become a stable and prosperous country created from the immigration of jewish settlors from many different countries. However, Israel has been involved in a number of wars with its Muslim neighbours.

不幸这些国家受到了几乎一个世纪的冲突和辛苦。没有油的叙利亚最近鏖战这几年。伊拉克有很大的油储量,但是人口包括什叶和逊尼的教派,结果是冲突。再说,2003年美国总统乔治布什打击那个国家,由于发生了一个战争,也很多动乱以后。1948 年以色列这个新国家成立,自从成为很稳定也兴荣的国家,从很多不同的国家到以色列的犹太移民。但是以色列根它的穆斯林邻居抗了些战争。

Saudi Arabia has been one of the most stable countries in the region. It was founded in 1933 in a vast southern area of the Middle East essentially comprising a largely uninhabited desert region. However, in 1938 oil was discovered in the country. It eventually transpired that not only is this one of the largest oil reserves in the world, it is also the easiest and cheapest to access. The cost of extraction of these reserves is less than 70 yuan per barrel, compared to more than 400 yuan per barrel for US shale based oil. 

沙特阿拉伯很久是区域里最稳定的国家之一。它1933年在一个巨大住在人口很小南方中东区域成立过。但是1938年在国家里油发现了。做勘探以后,他们发现沙特阿拉伯拥有世界上最巨大油储量之一,再说这是最容易也便宜提取。这些储量的采油费用是七十元差不多,比美国页岩油四百元多了的采油费用。

The “oil war” from late 2014, in which Saudi Arabia and other oil producing countries have continued to produce oil in competition with growing volumes of US shale oil, has led to the halving of the price of oil. It is expected that the benefit of cheaper gasoline will have a favourable impact and help the global economy to grow in 2015.

去年底发生了那个“油战争“跟着美国很快提高油生产的数量,所以沙特阿拉伯和别的油生产的国家继续生产很多油,竞争很厉害。结果这个情况是那个油价格下降比以前一半。经济专家们想到更便宜的汽油可以今年帮助进步世界的经济。

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